August 14, 2021

Many people ask “Where is the scientific evidence? How do you know that 5G and the deployment of small cells (which usually is 4G) is not safe? Why do you say it is harmful?”  The answer is that an ever growing and large body published research has found adverse effects from wireless radiation. Effects have been found at levels that are legal and permissible. 5G will use frequencies that are currently in use as well as higher frequencies never used in any widespread way.  

As stated in the Lancet, “This weight of scientific evidence refutes the prominent claim that the deployment of wireless technologies poses no health risks at the currently permitted non-thermal radiofrequency exposure levels. Instead, the evidence supports the International EMF Scientist Appeal by 244 scientists from 41 countries who have published on the subject in peer-reviewed literature and collectively petitioned the WHO and the UN for immediate measures to reduce public exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields and radiation.”

See examples of research clearly showing that wireless radiation and non ionizing electromagnetic fields  have biological effects. To state that 5G or 4G is safe is simply wrong. No such proof of safety exists.

Get facts about 5G here.

Read the science below.

Russell, C. (2018). 5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implicationsEnvironmental Research165, 484-495.

Kostoff, R., Heroux, P., Aschner, M., & Tsatsakis, A. (2020). Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditionsToxicology Letters323, 35-40.

Di Ciaula, A. (2018). Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?International Journal Of Hygiene And Environmental Health221(3), 367-375.

Neufeld, E., & Kuster, N. (2018). Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal DoseHealth Physics115(6), 705-711.

Betzalel, N., Ben Ishai, P., & Feldman, Y. (2018). The human skin as a sub-THz receiver – Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?Environmental Research163, 208-216.

Betzalel, N., Feldman, Y., & Ishai, P. (2017). The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human SkinIEEE Transactions On Terahertz Science And Technology7(5), 521-528.

Thielens, A., Bell, D., Mortimore, D., Greco, M., Martens, L., & Joseph, W. (2018). Exposure of Insects to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields from 2 to 120 GHzScientific Reports8(1).

Review Publications on Electromagnetic Radiation and RF

Yakymenko, I., Tsybulin, O., Sidorik, E., Henshel, D., Kyrylenko, O., & Kyrylenko, S. (2015). Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiationElectromagnetic Biology And Medicine35(2), 186-202.

 Bandara, P., & Carpenter, D. (2018). Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impactThe Lancet Planetary Health2(12), e512-e514.

Belpomme, D., Hardell, L., Belyaev, I., Burgio, E., & Carpenter, D. (2018). Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspectiveEnvironmental Pollution242, 643-658.

Singh, R., Nath, R., Mathur, A. K., & Sharma, R. S. (2018). Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive healthThe Indian Journal of Medical Research148, 92–99.

Levitt, B., & Lai, H. (2010). Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arraysEnvironmental Reviews18, 369-395.


Miller, A., Morgan, L., Udasin, I., & Davis, D. (2018). Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102)Environmental Research167, 673-683.

Carlberg, M., & Hardell, L. (2017). Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or CausationBiomed Research International2017, 1-17.

Atzmon, I., Linn, S., Richter, E., & Portnov, B. (2016). Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of Accumulated Empirical EvidenceInternational Journal Of Cancer And Clinical Research3(1).

Peleg, M., Nativ, O., & Richter, E. (2018). Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military settingEnvironmental Research163, 123-133.

Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation. (2018). Retrieved 8 May 2020, from

Hardell, L., & Carlberg, M. (2018). Comments on the US National Toxicology Program technical reports on toxicology and carcinogenesis study in rats exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 900 MHz and in mice exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 1,900 MHzInternational Journal Of Oncology.

Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Tibaldi, E., Lauriola, M., De Angelis, L., & Gnudi, F. et al. (2018). Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emissionEnvironmental Research165, 496-503.

Lerchl, A., Klose, M., Grote, K., Wilhelm, A., Spathmann, O., & Fiedler, T. et al. (2015). Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humansBiochemical And Biophysical Research Communications459(4), 585-590.

Tillmann, T., Ernst, H., Streckert, J., Zhou, Y., Taugner, F., Hansen, V., & Dasenbrock, C. (2010). Indication of cocarcinogenic potential of chronic UMTS-modulated radiofrequency exposure in an ethylnitrosourea mouse modelInternational Journal Of Radiation Biology86(7), 529-541.


Cucurachi, S., Tamis, W., Vijver, M., Peijnenburg, W., Bolte, J., & de Snoo, G. (2013). A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF)Environment International51, 116-140.

Otitoloju, A., Obe, I., Adewale, O., Otubanjo, O., & Osunkalu, V. (2009). Preliminary Study on the Induction of Sperm Head Abnormalities in Mice, Mus musculus, Exposed to Radiofrequency Radiations from Global System for Mobile Communication Base StationsBulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology84(1), 51-54.

Kumar, N., Sangwan, S., & Badotra, P. (2011). Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey beesToxicology International18(1), 70.

Favre, D. (2011). Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker pipingApidologie42(3), 270-279.

Goldsworthy, A. (2009). The Birds, the Bees and Electromagnetic Pollution [PDF]. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Sainudeen, S. (2011). Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) clashes with honey beesInternational Journal of Environmental Sciences1(5), 897-900.

Sharma, V., & Kumar, N. (2010). Changes in honey bee behaviour and biology under the influence of cell phone radiationsCurrent Science98(10), 1376-1378. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from  

Kimmel, S., Kuhn, J., Harst, W., & Stever, H. (2007). Electromagnetic Radiation: Influences on Honeybees (Apis mellifera).  IIAS-InterSymp Conference, Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Harst, W., Kuhn, J., & Stever, H. (2006). Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-Thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach within the Framework of Educational InformaticsIIAS-InterSymp Conference, 1(6), 1-6. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Kimmel, Stefan & Kuhn, Jochen & Harst, Wolfgang & Stever, Hermann. (2007). Electromagnetic radiation: Influences on honeybees (Apis mellifera). IIAS-InterSymp Conference. Baden-Baden. 1-6.   

Waldmann-Selsam, C., Balmori-de la Puente, A., Breunig, H., & Balmori, A. (2016). Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stationsScience Of The Total Environment572, 554-569.

Pall, M. (2018). Wi-Fi is an important threat to human healthEnvironmental Research164, 405-416.

Zothansiama, Zosangzuali, M., Lalramdinpuii, M., Jagetia, G., & Siama, Z. (2017). Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stationsElectromagnetic Biology And Medicine36(3), 295-305.

Gulati, S., Yadav, A., Kumar, N., Kanupriya, Aggarwal, N., Kumar, R., & Gupta, R. (2015). Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile TowersArchives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology70(3), 615-625.

Dode, A., Leão, M., Tejo, F., Gomes, A., Dode, D., & Dode, M. et al. (2011). Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, BrazilScience Of The Total Environment409(19), 3649-3665.

Meo, S., Almahmoud, M., Alsultan, Q., Alotaibi, N., Alnajashi, I., & Hajjar, W. (2018). Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive HealthAmerican Journal Of Men’s Health13(1), 155798831881691.

Abdel-Rassoul, G., El-Fateh, O., Salem, M., Michael, A., Farahat, F., El-Batanouny, M., & Salem, E. (2007). Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stationsNeurotoxicology28(2), 434-440.

Meo, S., Alsubaie, Y., Almubarak, Z., Almutawa, H., AlQasem, Y., & Hasanato, R. (2015). Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes MellitusInternational Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health12(11), 14519-14528.

Hutter, H., Moshammer, H., Wallner, P., & Kundi, M. (2006). Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stationsOccupational And Environmental Medicine63(5), 307-313.

Santini, R., Santini, P., Danze, J., Le Ruz, P., & Seigne, M. (2002). [Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex]Pathologie Biologie50(6), 369-373.

Gandhi, G., Kaur, G., & Nisar, U. (2015). A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base stationElectromagnetic Biology And Medicine34(4), 344-354.

Sharma, A., Lamba, O., Sharma, L., & Sharma, A. (2018). Effect of Mobile Tower Radiation on Microbial Diversity in Soil and Antibiotic Resistance2018 International Conference On Power Energy, Environment And Intelligent Control (PEEIC).

Examples of How It is Factual that the Proliferation of Cell Antennas Increase Exposures in Communities

Mazloum, T., Aerts, S., Joseph, W., & Wiart, J. (2018). RF-EMF exposure induced by mobile phones operating in LTE small cells in two different urban citiesAnnals Of Telecommunications, 74(1-2), 35-42.

Bhatt, C., Redmayne, M., Billah, B., Abramson, M., & Benke, G. (2016). Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures in kindergarten childrenJournal Of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology27(5), 497-504.

Sagar, S., Adem, S., Struchen, B., Loughran, S., Brunjes, M., & Arangua, L. et al. (2018). Comparison of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in different everyday microenvironments in an international contextEnvironment International114, 297-306.

Urbinello, D., Joseph, W., Verloock, L., Martens, L., & Röösli, M. (2014). Temporal trends of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday environments across European citiesEnvironmental Research134, 134-142.

Birks, L., Struchen, B., Eeftens, M., van Wel, L., Huss, A., & Gajšek, P. et al. (2018). Spatial and temporal variability of personal environmental exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in children in EuropeEnvironment International117, 204-214.

Choi, J., Hwang, J., Lim, H., Joo, H., Yang, H., & Lee, Y. et al. (2018). Assessment of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure from personal measurements considering the body shadowing effect in Korean children and parentsScience Of The Total Environment627, 1544-1551.

Zeleke, B., Brzozek, C., Bhatt, C., Abramson, M., Croft, R., & Freudenstein, F. et al. (2018). Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian AdultsInternational Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health15(10), 2234.

Experts Warn that Measurement Techniques Do Not Adequately Measure 5G Exposures  

Blackman, C., & Forge, S. (2019). 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia [PDF]. Study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. Luxembourg: European Parliament. 

Karaboytcheva, M. (2020). Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health [PDF].  European Parliamentary Research Service. Luxembourg: European Parliament. Retrieved from

Nasim, I., & Kim, S. (2017). Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Retrieved from

Nasim, I., & Kim, S. (2019). Human EMF Exposure in Wearable Networks for Internet of Battlefield ThingsMILCOM 2019 – 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM).

Additional  Research on 3G and 4G

National Toxicology Program (NTP) Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation, Final Reports

Resources on the NTP study:

Panagopoulos, D. (2019). Chromosome damage in human cells induced by UMTS mobile telephony radiationGeneral Physiology And Biophysics38(05), 445-454.

Markovà, E., Hillert, L., Malmgren, L., Persson, B., & Belyaev, I. (2005). Microwaves from GSM Mobile Telephones Affect 53BP1 and γ-H2AX Foci in Human Lymphocytes from Hypersensitive and Healthy PersonsEnvironmental Health Perspectives113(9), 1172-1177.

Belyaev, I., Markovà, E., Hillert, L., Malmgren, L., & Persson, B. (2009). Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytesBioelectromagnetics30(2), 129-141.

Markovà, E., Malmgren, L., & Belyaev, I. (2010). Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer RiskEnvironmental Health Perspectives118(3), 394-399.

Broom, K., Findlay, R., Addison, D., Goiceanu, C., & Sienkiewicz, Z. (2019). Early‐Life Exposure to Pulsed LTE Radiofrequency Fields Causes Persistent Changes in Activity and Behavior in C57BL/6 J MiceBioelectromagnetics40(7), 498-511.

Yu, G., Tang, Z., Chen, H., Chen, Z., Wang, L., & Cao, H. et al. (2020). Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3–MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult ratsScience Of The Total Environment698, 133860.

Vecsei, Z., Knakker, B., Juhász, P., Thuróczy, G., Trunk, A., & Hernádi, I. (2018). Short-term radiofrequency exposure from new generation mobile phones reduces EEG alpha power with no effects on cognitive performanceScientific Reports8(1).

Yang, L., Chen, Q., Lv, B., & Wu, T. (2016). Long-Term Evolution Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Modulates the Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta BandsClinical EEG And Neuroscience48(3), 168-175.

Lv, B., Chen, Z., Wu, T., Shao, Q., Yan, D., & Ma, L. et al. (2014). The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposureClinical Neurophysiology125(2), 277-286.

Wei, Y., Yang, J., Chen, Z., Wu, T., & Lv, B. (2018). Modulation of resting-state brain functional connectivity by exposure to acute fourth-generation long-term evolution electromagnetic field: An fMRI studyBioelectromagnetics40(1), 42-51.

Clegg, F., Sears, M., Friesen, M., Scarato, T., Metzinger, R., & Russell, C. et al. (2020). Building science and radiofrequency radiation: What makes smart and healthy buildingsBuilding And Environment176, 106324.

Compilation of Research Studies on Cell Tower Radiation and Health 

Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Tibaldi, E., Lauriola, M., De Angelis, L., & Gnudi, F. et al. (2018). Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emissionEnvironmental Research165, 496-503.

Belpoggi, F. Carcinogenic effect of base station environmental emission? – The latest results of in vivo studies [Video]. 

Belpoggi, F., Melnick, R., Carpenter, D., Davis, D., Hardell, L., & Sasco, A.  Ramazzini Institute Study on Base Station Radiofrequency Radiation: Teleconference March 22, 2018 [Video] 

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D. (2017). Base transceiver station antennae exposure and human healthInternational Journal Of Preventive Medicine8(1), 77.

Pearce, J. (2020). Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towersEnvironmental Research181, 108845.

Roda, C., & Perry, S. (2014). Mobile phone infrastructure regulation in Europe: Scientific challenges and human rights protection. Environmental Science & Policy, 37, 204-214.

Nyakyi, C., Mrutu, S., Sam, A., & Anatory, J. (2013). Safety zone determination for wireless cellular tower- a case study from Tanzania. International Journal Of Research In Engineering And Technology, 02(09), 194-201.

Yakymenko, I., Sidorik, E., Kyrylenko, S., & Chekhun, V. (2011). Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems. Experimental Oncology, 33, 62-70. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Khurana, V., Hardell, L., Everaert, J., Bortkiewicz, A., Carlberg, M., & Ahonen, M. (2010). Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations. International Journal Of Occupational And Environmental Health, 16(3), 263-267.

Eskander, E., Estefan, S., & Abd-Rabou, A. (2012). How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?. Clinical Biochemistry, 45(1-2), 157-161.

Navarro, E., Segura, J., Portolés, M., & Gómez‐Perretta de Mateo, C. (2003). The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in SpainElectromagnetic Biology And Medicine22(2-3), 161-169. 

Wolf, R., & Wolf, D. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter stationInternational Journal Of Cancer Prevention1(2). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Eger, H., Hagen, K., Lucas, B., Vogel, P., & Voit, H. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter stationUmwelt Medizin Gesellschaft17. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

The Bioeffects of Millimeter Waves Documented Years Ago

Declassified and Approved for release 2012/05/10: CIA-RDP88B01125R000300120005-6. (1977). Biological effect of millimeter radiowaves (pp. 116-119). Kiev: Vrachebnoye Delo.

Pakhomov, A., Akyel, Y., Pakhomova, O., Stuck, B., & Murphy, M. (1998). Current state and implications of research on biological effects of millimeter waves: A review of the literatureBioelectromagnetics19(7), 393-413.<393::aid-bem1>;2-x

Wang, Q., Zhao, X., Li, S., Wang, M., Sun, S., & Hong, W. (2017). Attenuation by a Human Body and Trees as well as Material Penetration Loss in 26 and 39 GHz Millimeter Wave BandsInternational Journal Of Antennas And Propagation2017, 1-8.

Stewart, D., Gowrishankar, T., & Weaver, J. (2006). Skin Heating and Injury by Prolonged Millimeter-Wave Exposure: Theory Based on a Skin Model Coupled to a Whole Body Model and Local Biochemical Release From Cells at Supraphysiologic TemperaturesIEEE Transactions On Plasma Science34(4), 1480-1493.

Papaioannou, A., & Samaras, T. (2011). Numerical Model of Heat Transfer in the Rabbit Eye Exposed to 60-GHz Millimeter Wave RadiationIEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering58(9), 2582-2588. Siegel and V. Pikov, “Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions,” in Electronics Letters, vol. 46, no. 26, pp. s70-s72, 23 December 2010, doi: 10.1049/el.2010.8442. Full PDF

Simkó M, Mattsson MO. 5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHzInt J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(18):3406. Published 2019 Sep 13. doi:10.3390/ijerph16183406

Compendiums for Additional Research 

BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF). The BioInitiative Report. (2020). Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Moskowitz,, J. (2018). Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Papers Finding Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation Exposure [PDF]. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

PowerWatch. (2018). PowerWatch: 1,670 Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health [PDF]. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Panagopoulos, D., Johansson, O., & Carlo, G. (2015). Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological ActivityScientific Reports, 5(1).

Panagopoulos, D., Johansson, O., & Carlo, G. (2015). Real versus Simulated Mobile Phone Exposures in Experimental StudiesBiomed Research International, 2015, 1-8.

Belyaev, I., Dean, A., Eger, H., Hubmann, G., Jandrisovits, R., & Kern, M. et al. (2016). EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnessesReviews On Environmental Health31(3).

Le Pogam, P., Le Page, Y., Habauzit, D., Doué, M., Zhadobov, M., & Sauleau, R. et al. (2019). Untargeted metabolomics unveil alterations of biomembranes permeability in human HaCaT keratinocytes upon 60 GHz millimeter-wave exposureScientific Reports9(1).

Soubere Mahamoud, Y., Aite, M., Martin, C., Zhadobov, M., Sauleau, R., Le Dréan, Y., & Habauzit, D. (2016). Additive Effects of Millimeter Waves and 2-Deoxyglucose Co-Exposure on the Human Keratinocyte TranscriptomePLOS ONE11(8), e0160810.

Mandl, P., Pezzei, P., & Leitgeb, E. (2018). Selected Health and Law Issues Regarding Mobile Communications with Respect to 5G2018 International Conference On Broadband Communications For Next Generation Networks And Multimedia Applications (CoBCom), 1-5.

Tripathi, S., Ben Ishai, P., & Kawase, K. (2018). Frequency of the resonance of the human sweat duct in a normal mode of operationBiomedical Optics Express9(3), 1301.

Wu, T., Rappaport, T., & Collins, C. (2015). The human body and millimeter-wave wireless communication systems: Interactions and implications2015 IEEE International Conference On Communications (ICC), 2423-2429.

Wu, T., Rappaport, T., & Collins, C. (2015). Safe for Generations to Come: Considerations of Safety for Millimeter Waves in Wireless Communications. IEEE Microwave Magazine16(2), 65-84.

Ramundo-Orlando, A. (2010). Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane – A Brief ReviewJournal Of Infrared, Millimeter, And Terahertz Waves31(12), 1400-1411.

Feldman, Y., & Ben-Ishai, P. (2017). Potential Risks to Human Health Originating from Future Sub-MM Communication Systems. Jerusalem. Retrieved from

Feldman, Y., Puzenko, A., Ben Ishai, P., Caduff, A., & Agranat, A. (2008). Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave RangePhysical Review Letters100(12), 128102.

Hayut, I., Ben Ishai, P., Agranat, A., & Feldman, Y. (2014). Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ductsPhysical Review E89(4), 042715.

Hayut, I., Puzenko, A., Ben Ishai, P., Polsman, A., Agranat, A., & Feldman, Y. (2013). The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the SkinIEEE Transactions On Terahertz Science And Technology3(2), 207-215.


Gandhi, O., & Riazi, A. (1986). Absorption of Millimeter Waves by Human Beings and its Biological ImplicationsIEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques34(2), 228-235.

Sypniewska, R., Millenbaugh, N., Kiel, J., Blystone, R., Ringham, H., Mason, P., & Witzmann, F. (2010). Protein changes in macrophages induced by plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter wavesBioelectromagnetics31(8), 656-663.

Ramundo-Orlando, A., Longo, G., Cappelli, M., Girasole, M., Tarricone, L., Beneduci, A., & Massa, R. (2009). The response of giant phospholipid vesicles to millimeter waves radiationBiochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes1788(7), 1497-1507.

Chen, Q., Lu, D., Jiang, H., & Xu, Z. (2008). [Effects of millimeter wave on gene expression in human keratinocytes]Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban37(1), 8-23. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Feldman, Y., Puzenko, A., Ben Ishai, P., Caduff, A., & Agranat, A. (2008). Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave RangePhysical Review Letters100(12).

Gapeev, A., Rubanik, A., Pashovkin, T., & Chemeris, N. (2007). [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency]Biofizika52(6), 92-1087. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Millenbaugh, N., Kiel, J., Ryan, K., Blystone, R., Kalns, J., & Brott, B. et al. (2006). Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heatShock25(6), 625-632.

Usichenko, T., Edinger, H., Gizhko, V., Lehmann, C., Wendt, M., & Feyerherd, F. (2006). Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Millimeter Waves for Pain TherapyEvidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine3(2), 201-207.

Gugkova, O., Gudkov, S., Gapeev, A., Bruskov, V., Rubannik, A., & Chemeris, N. (2005). [The study of the mechanisms of formation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solutions on exposure to high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies]Biofizika50(5). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Isakhanian, V., & Trchunian, A. (2005). [Indirect and repeated electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high freguency of bacteria Escherichia coli]Biofizika50(4). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Makar, V., Logani, M., Bhanushali, A., Kataoka, M., & Ziskin, M. (2004). Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activationBioelectromagnetics26(1), 10-19.

Lushnikov, K., Shumilina, Y., Yakushina, V., Gapeev, A., Sadovnikov, V., & Chemeris, N. (2004). Effects of Low-Intensity Ultrahigh Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Inflammatory ProcessesBulletin Of Experimental Biology And Medicine137(4), 364-366.  

Sinotova, O., Novoselova, E., Glushkova, O., & Fesenko, E. (2004). [A comparison of the effects of millimeter and centimeter waves on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells]Biofizika49(3). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Gapeev, A., Lushnikov, K., Shumilina, I., Sirota, N., Sadovnikov, V., & Chemeris N, N. (2003). [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro]Radiatsionnaya Biologiya Radioekologiya43(1), 87-92. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Lushnikov, K., Gapeedv, A., Shumilina, I., Shibaev, N., Sadovnikov, V., & Chmeris, N. (2003). [Decrease in the intensity of the cellular immune response and nonspecific inflammation upon exposure to extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation]Biofizika48(5). Retrieved 14 May 2020, from 

Lushnikov, K., Gapeev, A., & Chemeris, N. (2002). [Effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the immune system and systemic regulation of homeostasis]Radiatsionnaya Biologiya Radioekologiya42(5). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Novoselova, E., Ogaĭ, V., Sinotova, O., Glushkova, O., Sorokina, O., & Fesenko, E. (2002). [Effect of millimeter waves on the immune system in mice with experimental tumors]Biofizika47(5). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Ushakov, V., Alipov, E., Shcheglov, V., & Belyaev, I. (2000). Nonthermal effects of extremely high-frequency microwaves on chromatin conformation in cells in vivo-dependence on physical, physiological, and genetic factorsIEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques48(11), 2172-2179.

Szabo, I., Rojavin, M., Rogers, T., & Ziskin, M. (2001). Reactions of keratinocytes to in vitro millimeter wave exposureBioelectromagnetics22(5), 358-364.

D’Andrea, J., & Chalfin, S. (2000). Effects of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation on the EyeRadio Frequency Radiation Dosimetry And Its Relationship To The Biological Effects Of Electromagnetic Fields, 395-402.

Mason, P., Walters, T., Nelson, M., & Nelson, D. (2000). Skin heating effects of millimeter-wave irradiation-thermal modeling resultsIEEE Transactions On Microwave Theory And Techniques48(11), 2111-2120.

Walters, T., Blick, D., Johnson, L., Adair, E., & Foster, K. (2000). Heating and pain sensation produced in human skin by millimeter wavesHealth Physics78(3), 259-267.

Haas, A., Le Page, Y., Zhadobov, M., Sauleau, R., Dréan, Y., & Saligaut, C. (2017). Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cellsJournal Of Radiation Research58(4), 439-445.

Haas, A., Le Page, Y., Zhadobov, M., Sauleau, R., & Le Dréan, Y. (2016). Effects of 60-GHz millimeter waves on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells using high-content screeningNeuroscience Letters618, 58-65.

Le Dréan, Y., Mahamoud, Y., Le Page, Y., Habauzit, D., Le Quément, C., Zhadobov, M., & Sauleau, R. (2013). State of knowledge on biological effects at 40–60 GHzComptes Rendus Physique14(5), 402-411.

Sivachenko, I., Medvedev, D., Molodtsova, I., Panteleev, S., Sokolov, A., & Lyubashina, O. (2016). Effects of Millimeter-Wave Electromagnetic Radiation on the Experimental Model of MigraineBulletin Of Experimental Biology And Medicine160(4), 425-428.

Soghomonyan, D., Trchounian, K., & Trchounian, A. (2016). Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?Applied Microbiology And Biotechnology100(11), 4761-4771.

References on Millimeter waves in Military Non Lethal Weapon Program

Non-Lethal Weapons Program > About > Frequently Asked Questions > Active Denial System FAQs. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

The Human Effects Advisory Panel. (2008). A Narrative Summary and Independent Assessment of the Active Denial System. Penn State Applied Research Laboratory. Retrieved from

LeVine, S. (2009). The Active Denial System A Revolutionary, Non-lethal Weapon for Today’s Battlefield. Washington, DC: National Defense University Center for Technology and National Security Policy.

Law, D. (2012). Active Denial Technology (ADT). Presentation.

 Important Animal Studies on Radiofrequency Radiation 

The National Toxicology Program. (2018). Actions from Peer Review of the Draft NTP Technical Reports on Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation March 26-28, 2018 [PDF]. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Smith-Roe, S., Wyde, M., Stout, M., Winters, J., Hobbs, C., & Shepard, K. et al. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Male and Female Rats and Mice Following Subchronic Exposure [PDF]. Division of the National Toxicology Program/NIEHS. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from 

Carpenter, D. (2013). Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fieldsReviews On Environmental Health28(4).

Shinjyo, T., & Shinjyo, A. (2014). [Significant Decrease of Clinical Symptoms after Mobile Phone Base Station Removal – An Intervention Study]Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft27(4), 294-301. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Oberfeld, G., Navarro, E., Portoles, M., Maestu, C., & Gomez-Perretta, C. (2002). The microwave syndrome – Further aspects of a Spanish study. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyślony, M., Szyjkowska, A., & Gadzicka, E. (2004). [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: Review]Medycyna Pracy55(4). Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Buchner, K., & Eger, H. (2011). Changes of neurochemically important transmitters under the influence of modulated rf fields – A long term study under real life conditionsUmwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft24(1), 44-57. Retrieved 13 May 2020, from

Eger, H., Hagen, K., Lucas, B., Vogel, P., & Voit, H. (2004). [The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer]Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft17. Retrieved 14 May 2020, from

Pall, M. (2016). Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depressionJournal Of Chemical Neuroanatomy75(Part B), 43-51.

Pall, M. (2015). Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field actionReviews On Environmental Health30(2).

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