Modern humanity wades daily through various radiations, resulting in frequent exposure and causing potentially important biological effects. Among them, the brain is the organ most sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure. Despite numerous correlated studies, critical unknowns surround the different parameters used, including operational frequency, power density (i.e., energy dose), and irradiation time that could permit reproducibility and comparability between analyses. Furthermore, the interactions of EMR with biological systems and its precise mechanisms remain poorly characterized.
In this review, recent approaches examining the effects of microwave radiations on the brain, specifically learning and memory capabilities, as well as the mechanisms of brain dysfunction with exposure as reported in the literature, are analyzed and interpreted to provide prospective views for future research directed at this important and novel medical technology for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies on brain degeneration caused by microwave radiation.
Additionally, the interactions of microwaves with biological systems and possible mechanisms are presented in this review. Treatment with natural products and safe techniques to reduce harm to organs have become essential components of daily life, and some promising techniques to treat cancers and their radioprotective effects are summarized as well.
This review can serve as a platform for researchers to understand the mechanism and interactions of microwave radiation with biological systems, the present scenario, and prospects for future studies on the effect of microwaves on the brain.